Etienne Jules Marey
b. 5 March 1830; d. 15 May 1904
Marey started his career as an assistant surgeon in 1855 and specialized in human and animal physiology. In 1867 he became Professor of Natural History.
He was the inventor of the “chronophotograph” (1887) from which modern cinematography was developed. Many see Marey rather than the Lumière brothers, as the true father of cine photography.
Whereas Muybridge (with whom Marey was frequently in contact) had used a number of cameras to study movement, Marey used only one, the movements being recorded on one photographic plate. Characteristic of his pictures were his studies of the human in motion, where the subjects wore black suits with metal strips or white lines, as they passed in front of the black backdrops.
For those who think slow motion photography is relatively new, Marey also invented a slow motion camera in 1894, which took pictures at the rate of 700 per second!